. The Institution of Congress: Provide and explain some of the differences between the “old” and “new” Congress according to Lunch, explain aspects of Congress’ structure that provide internal checks on action and make it a typically slow-moving institution, discuss the logic behind Congress organizing itself into congressional committees and how members determine their preferences of which committees they most want to serve on, compare the role of the Speaker of the House with the Senate Majority Leader, and finally explain the differences between agency and descriptive representation, including an evaluation of the relative value of each.
In Old congress, junior members had to defer senior members. It is a pretty proxy system. The new congress is more independent. There is no records of votes in the process of election in the old congress. New congress use electronic election. It is just another job working in the congress in old day. While after in 1970, it has power and influence. Members determine their committee preference according to their interest, their personal goals, such as human rights and post experience. And their personal ambitions, prepare for future goals, for example they will choose the most influential committees if planing on running for president. The Speaker of the house is the leader of the Congress, the Leader of the Majority Party is the Leader of the Party, the Speaker of the House will mange the congress and arrange the agenda of the congress, and the Leader of the Majority Party is responsible for the party.
2. Presidential Power and Its Limits: Discuss at least 3 sources of power for the presidency in the U.S. Constitution, what is meant by the “regime presidency” and its impact on presidential power, the implications of “going public” for presidential influence, and then provide some of the characteristics of the “modern presidency.” Finally, discuss what Polsky explains the Constitution provides for with regard to war powers and what the presidency and Congress’ roles have become today in that arena, including a discussion of whether you think Congress will reassert itself in this sphere in the future.
Miroff,presidential spectacle; Presidents’ power equals to power to persuade. What the president wants is also in the interest of public, congress, military leaders. It also has the executive prerogative. The power of executive to act without law, or against law for the public good. In crisis such as war, it tend to be accepted, while in non-emergency situation, it is more likely to be challenged. Going public means president persuade the congress through in a public way. Today, president tries to gain public support for hi preferred policies to indirectly pressure congress to pass. The president would also make more speeches. The third way is to negotiate with congress openly. The characteristics of the president are as following: created direct relationship with public, institution expansion which means increase staff or advisers. President expected to have own legislative agenda. The president also have international leadership and have influence on foreign policy.
3. The Supreme Court, Process, & Politics: Discuss what the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review entails and how they gained this power, explain why justices are not elected and have lifetime tenure, compare and contrast the approaches of “judicial activism” vs. “judicial restraint” on how justices make decisions, evaluate the limits of the Supreme Court’s effect on American politics and why it is often considered the weakest branch of the national government, and finally, discuss according to Rosenberg what the implications are for groups who attempt to create social change through the courts.
It entails that the court can decide whether the bill passed by Congress is consistent with its Constitution, and if the Supreme Court finds it unconstitutional, it will declare the bill has no effect. Judicial review is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary. A court with judicial review power may invalidate laws and decisions that are incompatible with a higher authority, such as the terms of a written constitution. The justice is not elected and have a life long tenure because in this way, it could keep a distance from parties which may hold short term interest, it does not need to worry about public opinion so it can make right ruling, keep independent from other branches so it does not need to please others. It can not produce any social changes because they cannot enforce ruling.
4. The American Political System and Democracy: Though we describe the United States as a democratic nation, there are features of our political system that have made it difficult for all Americans to participate freely and equally in government affairs. Discuss some of these features including specific governmental acts that restricted the civil rights of black Americans, constitutional methods of selection of some public officials that distanced them from direct public control, the role of money in elections, the nature of the presidential spectacle as described by Miroff, and the role the filibuster has played in the Senate. Throughout this essay you will want to focus on the undemocratic aspects of American politics and in each section make sure you refer to specific laws, rulings, examples, or concepts from our course.
In 1787 the United States Constitution says that every black only owns one-third vote right of the white people.From the presidential election to the governor election, as well as the election of House of Representatives, the Senate elections, have to spend a lot of money, speech, lobbying, canvassing, dinner, advertising all needs burning money. Although the United States has been promoting its political system based on equality for all, “one person, one vote, with the vote with the right”, in fact, money is the real boss behind democracy, one may not win the election with money, but one will surely not win without money. The election is the game of is 1% of the rich people. The purpose of democracy should be to explore the scientific and rational public policy-making, but when the election becomes the game of rich people burning money, a strange phenomenon appeared, the presidential candidate was supposed to have the basic political ability and experience , while on the contrary, money has become an indispensable basic element of the candidate.